Failure in 5 PMLC Models

According to Wysocki, the five PMLC models are expected to face various risks and failures. This requires that the project manager should do a risk assessment for each model to decide on the appropriate model ( 299).  Goals and solution are the variables the project manager should investigate on so as to achieve a formidable model.  The failures related to the models are; for TPM- Linear and incremental failure, APM has iterative and adoptive while EPM has extreme failure.

Linear PMLC Model

This is the simplest model since the PMLC processes occur once within the planned sequence (343). Through this simplicity, it is faced with six weak points; limited flexibility, high cost, poor efficiency in product or service delivery, the model needs detailed planning done early enough, a fixed program of work and lack of client satisfaction.

Incremental

This model had a similar approach like that of linear model and falls under TPM although through an aggressive schedule, deliverables are released incrementally. One of the failures is that the teams may fail to interact between increments. This failure is likely to happen at the design stages of a project. A problem is easily created when another estimator is used to replace the original. This model is time consuming. There are high chances of the project dragging for a long time, hence more money and time is wasted (361).

Iterative Model

This model relies on uncertainty to derive at solutions. Part of the solutions could be known but circumstances are not clearly defined. It requires a lot of input from the client, making it expensive. Co-located teams are needed to meet monthly, or weekly or bi monthly. Communication breakdown may polarize the whole process.

Adaptive Model

This model differs with the iterative one though they fall under APM approach. It has high levels of uncertainty in relation to solutions and processes required to achieve a particular objective. The client is actively involved in the input. This can easily cause failure in the process since the client is of essence to the process. This could create a loophole of unaccountability. Another issue is that the end product cannot be identified in the early phases of the project. Solutions to problem are never clear until the project has undergone the PMLC approach. Risks are extremely high.

Extreme Model

This model is complex with the least structure. Rate of failure is high although the phases are repeated. There are chances of looking for solutions from the wrong places. As the project is initiated, there are no definable goals. This will result to excessive use of resources.  A project may stall due to lack of well managed resources. There is also no guarantee for results. It is time consuming and resource wasteful.

Summary

Most failure would probably result from the linear model. Its simplicity creates more room for failure than other viable models. Its framework lacks flexibility that is an option for mitigating failures.

Works Cited

  • Batten, Lance. CMMI 100 Success Secrets Capability Maturity Model Integration 100 Success       Secrets- 100 Most Asked Questions: The Missing CMMI-DEV, CMMI-ACQ Project        Management and Process Guide. Pp. 80-81. U.S.A; Lulu.com. 2008. Print.
  • Kasse, Tim. Practical Insight Into CMMI. P. 397. New York; Artech House. 2008. Print.
  • Software Engineering Institute. CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! Pp. 21-22. U.S.A.;        Software Engineering Process Management. 2008. Print.
  • Wysocki, Robert. Adaptive Project Framework: Managing Complexity in the Face of         Uncertainity. Pp. 15-30. Indianapolis; John Wiley & Sons. 2010. Print.

CMMI in a TPM or APF

Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement model providing organizations fundamental principles to effectively manage projects. There are various types of CMMI models depending on area of interest. Generally, CMMI ensures efficient functioning of the maturity models. This is achieved through integration of appropriate models into a single structure. CMMI enables organizations achieve:

  • Customer satisfaction through various engineering activities
  • Improve relationship between organization’s management and engineering activities towards achievement of the organization’s goals
  • Sound and relevant high-maturity CMMI applications
  • Integrate other features of CMMI like risk management, supplier management and measurement and
  • Comply with pertinent ISO standards.

Any organization achieves its goals and objectives through improved processes to deliver quality products and services offered by CMMI (Batten pp. 80-81).

The Basic Capabilities Required by CMMI Level 3

CMMI Level 3 is also referred to as Defined Level and is among the five identified maturity levels. An organization reaches Level 3 only when it has successfully obtained the requirements for Levels 1 and 2.  Level 3 involves understanding and characterizing the processes of an organization. The processes are outlined in procedures, standards, and methods and tools. The organization is responsible for streamlining its processes with the standard processes. The process objectives must be tailored by the management based on the standard processes. As a result, the processes of an organization comply with the organization’s objectives (Batten pp.107-108).

Apart from the standard processes, the organization establishes measurement repository. This repository contains products and services measures related to the process standards set by the organization. The repository also contains information required to understand and interpret the measures as well as asses them on the basis of reliability and applicability. Through this, trends are noticed as predictability gets achieved. Process performances are then easily developed to support quantitative project management (Kasse p.397).

How does CMMI Level 3 Certificate Benefit Traditional Project Management (TPM) Company and an Adaptive Project Framework (APF)?

Currently the new set of application seems to be inappropriate for traditional project management models. Most contemporary project does not meet the conditions required for implementation of TPM models. This difficulty rises because of constant change, unclear business goals, competition from competitors among other factors. The TPM models require CMMI Level 3 certificate to streamline its processes so that it can produce standard products and services. Although TPM uses a recipe approach, CMMI Level 3 is easily integrated in the system because it is a process but not a model (Wysocki pp. 15-30). The Adaptive Project Framework can be applied to TPF. This is so because APF is designed around software development projects and has no fixed project phase. Since APF is a framework model, CMMI can still be integrated in the model because it is a process but not a model.  The companies will benefit from CMMI Level 3 through improved services and quality products. Currently, companies with Level 3 certification easily access government jobs, therefore the companies will have an increased level platform for more job opportunities.

What are the possible problems associated with adopting the CMMI?

Performance measures are sure steps towards analysis of the success of a product. The following performance measures are used by organizations to determine the viability of CMMI; costs, schedule, quality, customer satisfaction and Return on Investment. Companies may rush to achieve maturity level. During the rush, the company might lose focus on improving organization goals, thereby losing performance. The result of such a mistake is the development of wrong standard processes and tailoring guidelines. The standards could be over specified and this will create constraints to the project. Flexibility of the project will be lost hence project needs will not be met. In case of under specification, omission of organization’s and project practices will be eminent. CMMI practices may be treated equally since the definition standards processes have been compromised with (Software Engineering Institute pp. 21-22).

Works Cited

  • Batten, Lance. CMMI 100 Success Secrets Capability Maturity Model Integration 100 Success       Secrets- 100 Most Asked Questions: The Missing CMMI-DEV, CMMI-ACQ Project        Management and Process Guide. Pp. 80-81. U.S.A; Lulu.com. 2008. Print.
  • Kasse, Tim. Practical Insight Into CMMI. P. 397. New York; Artech House. 2008. Print.
  • Software Engineering Institute. CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! Pp. 21-22. U.S.A.;        Software Engineering Process Management. 2008. Print.
  • Wysocki, Robert. Adaptive Project Framework: Managing Complexity in the Face of         Uncertainity. Pp. 15-30. Indianapolis; John Wiley & Sons. 2010. Print.

Adaptive PMLC vs Extreme PMLC

Project management life cycle (PMLC) consists of sequential and overlapping project phases determined by management of an organization. These phases control organization needs and or the organization undertaking the project. Since organizations are unique and posses different goals, project management life cycles will always be shaped or determined by these spheres. Through the PMLC, a basic framework is derived that has the following structure; commencement of the project, organization and preparation phase, execution phase and project closure (Project Management Institute 15-16). There exist two types of PMLC models; Adaptive PMLC and Extreme PMLC models. Although these models use the basic framework, they also have similarities and differences.

Understanding Adaptive PMLC Model and Extreme PMLC Model

The Adaptive PMLC is mostly applied in construction industry since it offers scarce information about a project with no functional aspects of seeking solutions. It deals with high level of risks in solutions so as to achieve the goals of the project. It has four adaptive models; Adaptive Software Development (ASD), Adaptive Project Framework (APF), Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), and SCRUM (Wysocki 414-450).

Extreme PMLC Model

This is a complex model and probably used on research and development projects. Phases repeat the processes in groups in a linear manner. Each phase derives its objectives from the previous phase continuously until a future goal is achieved (Wysocki, 464).

Similarities of the Models

  • The models have an uncertain solutions or outcomes since the Adaptive PMLC has a defined goal used to set the path for solutions while the Extreme PMLC lacks the goal or solutions.
  • For the models, the client’s active participation and feedback is of essence during the process. Adaptive PMLC has a set format in planning that engages the client. The whole process is client driven. According to the Extreme PMLC, the client is involved in issuing directions the project takes since the client is responsible for inputs during interactions.
  • The basic framework for the PMLC is adopted by the two models.
  • Brainstorming is required by the management for both models. Management has to discover, innovate, learn, and improve during the interactive processes in search for solutions.
  • Since both models work towards one goal of deriving solutions, the planning models are swift, leading to faster delivery of service or product in question (Wysocki 15-20).

Differences of the Models

The difference of the models is derived from project definition. Some of the differences are;

  • The goals and objectives for the Adaptive PMLC model are always known which is not the case is for Extreme PMLC. Extreme PMLC lacks a clear objective or goal. For example, a construction project has clear goals to be fulfilled. The Adaptive PMLC model will apply, but when a research and development has to be conducted concerning a construction project, the Extreme PMLC model will suit the project.
  • Adaptive PMLC model has a defined project time and costs with clear solutions during interaction.  The Extreme PMLC model lacks a defined project time and cost but seems fragmented.
  • Through the Adaptive PMLC model, businesses gain value within a time frame while the Extreme PMLC model will require processes to restart from initial stages thereby creating no value to costs incurred. It therefore has no guarantee on results (Wysocki 29-32).

Summary

Before a project can begin, the project manager must have a clear picture of the best model of approach. Through external and internal factors, a project manager is in a position to choose the best model suitable for the project.

Works Cited

  • Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge     (PMBOK) 5th Ed. Pp. 15-21. U.S.A.;Project Management Institute, Inc. 2008. Print.
  • Wysocki, Robert. Adaptive Project Framework: Managing Complexity in the Face of         Uncertainity. Pp. 15-30. Indianapolis; John Wiley & Sons. 2010. Print.
  • Wysocki, Robert.  Effective Project Management: traditional, agile, extreme. 5th ed. Pp. 297         488. Indianapolis: John Wiley & Sons Publishing. 2009. Print.
  • Wysocki, Robert. Executive’s Guide to Project Management: Organizational Processes and          Practices for Supporting Complex Projects. pp. 29-32. Indianapolis; John Wiley & Sons. 2011. Print.